Microsoft Support

Page 41 of 704« First...102030...3940414243...506070...Last »

The directory object may have an unknown class or cannot be located

You may observe the following symptoms in Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server:

  • When you attempt to create an object, you may receive either of the following messages:

    The object name of object already exists. Enter a unique directory name for this object.

    Windows cannot create the new user object because the pre-Windows 2000 logon name name of object is already in use.
    Select another name, and then try again.

  • Objects may be missing in the Active Directory directory service. When you search for an object in the user interface (either Exchange Service Manager or Active Directory Users and Computers), you cannot find it. If you use the ADSI Edit utility, you can observe the object, but the object class is unknown, and you cannot make any modifications to it.
This behavior can occur if you do not have sufficient permissions. For example, an administrator may impose a Deny all setting to the Everyone group for that particular object.
To resolve this behavior, use any of the following methods.

Method 1

Run the DSACLS tool that is located in the Windows 2000 Supports Tools CD-ROM: Click Run, and then type: dsacls “dn of object” (use quotes if there are any spaces in the distinguished name DN).

The DN of the object can be determined by using the LDP.exe utility.

Warning If you use the ADSI Edit snap-in, the LDP utility, or any other LDAP version 3 client, and you incorrectly modify the attributes of Active Directory objects, you can cause serious problems. These problems may require you to reinstall Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server, Microsoft Exchange Server 2003, or both Windows and Exchange. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems that occur if you incorrectly modify Active Directory object attributes can be solved. Modify these attributes at your own risk.

For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

260745

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/260745/
)

Using the LDP utility to modify Active Directory object attributes

An example of a Store object with this problem (that can return a list of permissions on the object) is:

C:>DSACLS “CN=BAD_Object,CN=First Storage Group,CN=InformationStore,CN=S8,CN=Servers,CN=EX-ORG-Name,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=Microsoft,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=Microsoft,DC=com”

Method 2

Examine the Effective permissions on the object:

Locate any groups or users that have a Deny (group or user) full control permission (for example, the Everyone group). If the permission does not have “Inherited from parent” beside it, the permission is an explicit Deny permission and can override any inherited or explicit Allow permissions for that particular right.

You can remove the explicit Deny permission by using the graphical user interface (GUI). If the GUI does not enable you to remove this permission, use the DSACLS tool. Log on to the computer as a domain administrator or enterprise administrator because these groups typically have owner rights and cannot be completely locked out. Click Run, and then type: dsacls “dn of object” /Rgroup or username.

Refer to the preceding example in Method 1. If the previous DSACLS tool returned the following information:
Deny Everyone Full Control

Then, click Run, and type:
c:>dsacls “cn=bad_object,cn=first storage group,cn=informationstore,cn=s8,cn=servers,cn=ex-org-name,cn=administrative groups,cn=microsoft,cn=microsoft exchange,cn=services,cn=configuration,dc=microsoft,dc=com” /R everyone

The preceding command can remove all explicit permissions from the Everyone group on that object.

Method 3

Click Run, and then type the following command:

dsacls “dn of object” /G administrators:ga

This command grants the administrators group full control of the object.

Article ID: 287691 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 4.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition
kbnosurvey kbarchive kbprb KB287691

See more here:
The directory object may have an unknown class or cannot be located

How to Verify That ForestPrep and DomainPrep Completed Successfully in Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003

This step-by-step article describes how to verify that the setup /forestprep command and the setup /domainprep command ran successfully during the installation of Microsoft
Exchange 2000 Server or Microsoft Exchange Server 2003. You must have the ADSI
Edit snap-in to complete some of these steps.

Exchange 2000

ForestPrep

To verify that the setup /forestprep command completed successfully on a computer that is running
Microsoft Windows 2000 Server in an Exchange 2000 environment, use either of
the following methods:

  • Look for event ID 1575
    Event ID 1575 is recorded in the Directory Service event log
    of each domain controller where the setup /forestprep command has run. To view event ID 1575 in the Directory Service
    event log of a domain controller, follow these steps:

    1. Click Start, point to
      Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and
      then click Event Viewer.
    2. In Event Viewer, click Directory
      Service
      .
    3. In the right pane, click the Event
      header to sort the events from lowest to highest number.
    4. In the Event list, view the list of
      event ID numbers to find event ID 1575. If event ID 1575 is not in the list, setup /forestprep did not run on the domain controller.
  • Use the ADSI Edit snap-inWarning If you use the ADSI Edit snap-in, the LDP utility, or any other
    LDAP version 3 client, and you incorrectly modify the attributes of Active
    Directory objects, you can cause serious problems. These problems may require
    you to reinstall Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows Server 2003,
    Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server, Microsoft Exchange Server 2003, or both Windows
    and Exchange. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems that occur if you
    incorrectly modify Active Directory object attributes can be solved. Modify
    these attributes at your own risk.
    To use the ADSI Edit snap-in to verify that setup /forestprep completed successfully on a computer that is running Windows 2000
    Server, follow these steps:

    1. Click Start, point to
      Programs, point to Windows 2000 Support
      Tools
      , point to Tools, and then click ADSI
      Edit
      .
    2. Expand Schema, and then click
      CN=Schema, CN=Configuration, DC=Your_Domain,
      DC=Your_Domain,
      DC=Your_Domain
      .
    3. Double-click the
      cn=ms-Exch-Schema-Version-Pt object.
    4. In the Select a property to view box,
      click rangeUpper. Note the value that is in the
      Value box. If the value is less than 4397, setup /forestprep has been run by a version of Exchange 2000 that is earlier than
      the original released version of the product. If the value is 4397, setup /forestprep has been successfully run by Exchange 2000. If the value is 6870,
      setup /forestprep has been successfully run by Exchange 2003.

DomainPrep

To determine if the setup /domainprep command has run successfully, run the Policytest utility on a
domain controller. The Policytest utility is located in the
Support/Utils/Platform folder on the Exchange 2000
Server Enterprise Edition CD. When you run this utility at a command prompt,
all the domain controllers should report the same security settings.
For
additional information about the Policytest utility, click the following
article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

281537

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/281537/
)

XADM: Description of the Policytest.exe utility

Exchange 2003

To verify that the setup /forestprep command and the setup /domainprep command completed successfully in Exchange 2003, run the
OrgPrepCheck tool from Exchange 2003 Deployment Tools. To run the OrgPrepCheck
tool, use either of the following methods.

Note You must have the LDAP protocol installed on the Exchange 5.5
computer to run Exchange Deployment Tools successfully.

  • Start OrgPrepCheck from Exchange Deployment Tools
    Use the OrgPrepCheck tool that is in the
    Exchange Deployment Tools to determine if the commands have
    been completed successfully. To do this, follow these steps:

    1. Insert the Exchange 2003 CD in your CD-ROM
      drive.
    2. On the Welcome to Exchange Server 2003
      Setup
      page, click Exchange Deployment Tools.

      Note If the Welcome to Exchange Server 2003 Setup
      page does not appear after you insert your CD, double-click
      Setup.exe, and then click Exchange Deployment
      Tools
      .

    3. Click Deploy the first Exchange 2003
      server
      .
    4. Click Coexistence with Exchange
      5.5
      .
    5. On the Phase 1 page, click
      Next.
    6. On the Phase 2 page, locate step 3,
      enter the required information, and then click Run OrgPrepCheck
      now
      .
    7. Close the Exchange Deployment Tools
      window.
    8. View the following output file to see if the setup /forestprep command and the setup /domainprep command have completed successfully:

      C:Exdeploy LogsExdeploy.log

  • Run OrgPrepCheck at a command prompt You can also run the OrgPrepCheck tool at a
    command prompt. To do this, follow these steps:

    1. Insert the Exchange 2003 CD in your CD-ROM
      drive.
    2. Click Start, and then click
      Run.
    3. In the Open box, type
      cmd, and then click OK.
    4. Locate the CD-ROM drive, and then type the following
      command:

      CD-ROM_Drive_Letter:supportexdeployexdeploy.exe /gc:global catalog server name /s:Exchange_5.5_Computer_Name /t:orgprepcheck

    5. View the following output file to see if the setup /forestprep command and the setup /domainprep command have completed successfully:

      C:Exdeploy LogsExdeploy.log

Additionally, you can use the ADSI Edit snap-in to verify that
the setup /forestprep and the setup /domainprep commands completed successfully in Exchange 2003.

ForestPrep

The Exchange 2003 setup /forestprep command writes many of its changes to the configuration naming
context in the Active Directory directory service. One of the last ForestPrep
actions sets the objectVersion attribute on the Exchange organization container to a value of
6903. To locate the objectVersion attribute, use the ADSI Edit snap-in or the LDP utility.
Warning If you use the ADSI Edit snap-in, the LDP utility, or any other
LDAP version 3 client, and you incorrectly modify the attributes of Active
Directory objects, you can cause serious problems. These problems may require
you to reinstall Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows Server 2003,
Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server, Microsoft Exchange Server 2003, or both Windows
and Exchange. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems that occur if you
incorrectly modify Active Directory object attributes can be solved. Modify
these attributes at your own risk.

To use the ADSI Edit snap-in to view the objectVersion attribute, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start, point to
    Programs, point to Windows 2000 Support
    Tools
    , point to Tools, and then click ADSI
    Edit
    .
  2. Expand Configuration Container, expand
    CN=Configuration,DC=forest_root_domain,DC=com, expand
    CN=Services, and then expand CN=Microsoft
    Exchange
    .
  3. Right-click CN=Exchange_organization_name,
    and then click Properties.
  4. In the Select which properties to view
    list, click Optional.
  5. In the Select a property to view list,
    click objectVersion. View the value in the
    Value(s) box. If the Exchange 2003 setup /forestprep command has ever been run, the objectVersion attribute has a value of 6903. If the objectVersion attribute does not have a value, or if the value appears in the
    ADSI Edit snap-in as ““, either the ForestPrep utility has not
    been run on the forest, or the domain controller that you are connected to has
    not yet received replication messages from more up-to-date domain
    controllers.

DomainPrep

The Exchange 2003 setup /domainprep command writes many of its changes to the domain naming context
in Active Directory. One of the last DomainPrep actions sets the objectVersion attribute on the Microsoft Exchange System
Objects
container to a value of 6936. To locate the objectVersion attribute, use the ADSI Edit snap-in or the LDP utility. To view
the objectVersion attribute by using the ADSI Edit snap-in,
follow these steps:

  1. Click Start, point to
    Programs, point to Windows 2000 Support
    Tools
    , point to Tools, and then click ADSI
    Edit
    .
  2. Expand Domain NC, and then expand
    DC=local_domain,DC=com.
  3. Right-click CN=Microsoft Exchange System
    Objects
    , and then click Properties.
  4. In the Select which properties to view
    list, click Optional.
  5. In the Select a property to view list,
    click objectVersion.
  6. View the value in the Value(s) box. If the
    Exchange 2003 setup /domainprep command has ever been run on the domain, the objectVersion attribute has a value of 6936. If the objectVersion attribute does not have a value, or if the value appears in the
    ADSI Edit snap-in as ““, either the DomainPrep utility has not
    been run on the domain, or the domain controller that you are connected to has
    not yet received replication messages from more up-to-date domain controllers.

These steps are useful to determine whether the Exchange 2003
Setup program (the Setup program without any additional parameters) can
continue to run on an Exchange 2003 computer. Before the Exchange 2003 Setup
program can run, the Setup program verifies that the latest Exchange
2003-specific Active Directory updates are present on the domain controller
that the Exchange computer is connected to.

For additional information about the Exchange
Server 2003 Deployment Tools, click the following article numbers to view the
articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
822942

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/822942/
)

Considerations when you upgrade to Exchange Server 2003

812593

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/812593/
)

Exchange Server 2003 Deployment Tools overview

Article ID: 274737 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 6.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition

View the original here:
How to Verify That ForestPrep and DomainPrep Completed Successfully in Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003

How to send form results to a database and an e-mail address in FrontPage 2000

Microsoft has created a white paper that explains how to
send form results to a database and an e-mail address at the same time, by
using Microsoft FrontPage 2000.

The
following file is available for download from the Microsoft Download
Center:
Cdonts2000.exe

(http://download.microsoft.com/download/fp2000/whitep/1/NT5XP/EN-US/cdonts2000.exe)

For
additional information about how to download Microsoft Support files, click the
following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

119591

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/119591/EN-US/
)

How to Obtain Microsoft Support Files from Online Services

Microsoft scanned this file for viruses. Microsoft used the most
current virus-detection software that was available on the date that the file
was posted. The file is stored on security-enhanced servers that help to
prevent any unauthorized changes to the file.
After you download the Cdonts2000.exe file, double-click
it to extract the white paper (Cdonts.doc).

Article ID: 275251 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 4.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft FrontPage 2000 Standard Edition
kbnosurvey kbarchive kbcdonts kbdatabase kbforms kbemail kbasp kbwhitepaper kbinfo KB275251

Read the original post:
How to send form results to a database and an e-mail address in FrontPage 2000

Guidelines for selecting the appropriate picture format

This article discusses the following topics:

  • The various picture file formats that you can insert into
    Microsoft Office 2000 programs
  • How to select the best format for a particular
    purpose
  • How to select the appropriate picture resolution and color
    depth for your pictures

This article is not intended to discuss each file format and
limitation in technical depth. Instead, it provides a broad overview of the
primary uses of each picture format, some advantages and disadvantages of each
format, and options such as color depth and resolution.

For detailed
descriptions and limitations of the graphics filters that are included with
Office 2000, click the article number below to view the article in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:

210396

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/210396/
)

Descriptions and limitations of graphics filters included with Office 2000

This article is divided into the following
sections:

  • Picture Formats
    • Raster Pictures
    • Vector Pictures

  • Resolution and Color Depth
    • Onscreen Display
    • Printed Output

  • Glossary

Picture Formats – Raster Pictures

BMP – Windows Bitmap

Windows bitmaps store a single raster image in any color depth,
from black and white to 24-bit color. The Windows bitmap file format is
compatible with other Microsoft Windows programs. It does not support file
compression and is not suitable for Web pages.

Overall, the
disadvantages of this file format outweigh the advantages. For photographic
quality images, a PNG, JPG, or TIF file is often more suitable. BMP files are
suitable for wallpaper in Windows.

Advantages

  • 1-bit through 24-bit color depth
  • Widely compatible with existing Windows programs,
    especially older programs

Disadvantages

  • No compression, which results in very large
    files
  • Not supported by Web browsers

PCX – PC Paintbrush

PC Paintbrush pictures, also called Z-Soft bitmaps, store a
single raster image at any color depth. Paintbrush pictures are more widely
used in earlier Windows and MS-DOS-based programs, and are still compatible
with many newer programs. PCX pictures support internal Run Length Encoded
(RLE) compression.

Advantages

  • Standard format across many Windows and MS-DOS based
    programs
  • Internal compression

Disadvantages

  • Not supported by Web browsers

PNG – Portable Network Graphic

PNG pictures store a single raster image at any color depth. PNG
is a platform-independent format that supports a high level of lossless
compression, alpha channel transparency, gamma correction, and interlacing. It
is supported by more recent Web browsers.

Advantages

  • High-level lossless compression
  • Alpha channel transparency
  • Gamma correction
  • Interlacing
  • Supported by more recent Web browsers

Disadvantages

  • Lack of support for PNG files in older browsers and
    programs
  • As an Internet file format, PNG provides less compression
    than the lossy compression of JPG
  • As an Internet file format, PNG offers no support for
    multi-image or animated files, which the GIF format supports

JPG – Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)

JPEG pictures store a single raster image in 24-bit color. JPEG
is a platform-independent format that supports the highest levels of
compression; however, this compression is lossy. Progressive JPEG files support
interlacing.

The level of JPEG file compression can be increased or
decreased, sacrificing image quality for file size. The compression ratio can
be as high as 100:1. (The JPEG format comfortably compresses files at a 10:1 to
20:1 ratio with little picture degradation.) JPEG compression works well with
photo-realistic artwork. However, in simpler artwork with fewer colors, sharp
levels of contrast, solid borders, or large solid areas of color, JPEG
compression does not provide superior results. Sometimes the compression ratio
is as low as 5:1, with a high loss of picture integrity. This happens because
the JPEG compression scheme compresses similar hues well, but does not work as
well with sharp differences in brightness or solid areas of color.

Advantages

  • Superior compression for photographic or realistic
    artwork
  • Variable compression allows file size control
  • Interlacing (for Progressive JPEG files)
  • Widely supported Internet standard

Disadvantages

  • Lossy compression degrades original picture
    data.
  • When you edit and resave JPEG files, JPEG compounds the
    degradation of the original picture data; this degradation is
    cumulative.
  • JPEG is not suitable for simpler pictures that contain few
    colors, broad areas of similar color, or stark differences in
    brightness.

GIF – Graphics Interchange Format

GIF pictures store single or multiple raster image data in 8-bit,
or 256 colors. GIF pictures support transparency, compression, interlacing, and
multiple-image pictures (animated GIFs).

GIF transparency is not
alpha channel transparency, and cannot support semi-transparent effects. GIF
compression is LZW compression, at a roughly 3:1 ratio. Animated GIFs are
supported in the GIF89a version of the GIF file specification.

Advantages

  • Widely supported Internet standard
  • Lossless compression and transparency supported
  • Animated GIFs are prevalent and easy to create with a large
    number of GIF animation programs

Disadvantages

  • 256-color palette; detailed pictures and photo-realistic
    images lose color information and look paletted
  • Lossless compression is inferior to the JPG or PNG formats
    in most cases
  • Limited transparency; no semi-transparent or faded effects
    like those provided by alpha channel transparency

TIFF – Tagged Image File Format

TIFF pictures store a single raster image at any color depth.
TIFF is arguably the most widely supported graphic file format in the printing
industry. It supports optional compression, and is not suitable for viewing in
Web browsers.

The TIFF format is an extensible format, which means
that a programmer can modify the original specification to add functionality or
meet specific needs. This can lead to incompatibilities between different types
of TIFF pictures.

Advantages

  • Widely supported, especially between Macintosh computers
    and Windows-based computers
  • Optional compression
  • Extensible format allows for many optional
    features

Disadvantages

  • Not supported by Web browsers
  • Extensibility results in many different types of TIFF
    pictures. Not all TIFF files are compatible with all programs that support the
    baseline TIFF standard

Picture Formats – Vector Pictures

DXF – AutoCAD Drawing Interchange File

The DXF format is a vector-based, ASCII format that Autodesk’s
AutoCAD program uses. AutoCAD provides highly detailed schematics that are
completely scalable.

Advantages

  • AutoCAD allows you to create highly detailed and precise
    schematics and drawings
  • AutoCAD files are popular in the architectural, design, and
    engraving industries

Disadvantages

  • Limited support in Office 2000, which supports versions up
    through R12
  • AutoCAD has a steep learning curve; however, other graphics
    programs are also capable of exporting DXF pictures

CGM – Computer Graphics Metafile

The CGM metafile can contain vector and bitmap information. It is
an internationally standardized file format used by many organizations and
government agencies, including the British Standards Institute (BSI), American
National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the United States Department of
Defense.

Advantages

  • International standard format

CDR – CorelDRAW!

The CorelDRAW! metafile can contain both vector and bitmap
information. It is a widely used, artistic design file format.

Advantages

  • Widely used in the prepress and artistic design
    industries.

Disadvantages

  • Limited support in Office 2000, which supports version 6
    and earlier

WMF – Windows Metafile

The Windows Metafile is a 16-bit metafile format that can contain
both vector and bitmap information. It is optimized for the Windows operating
system.

Advantages

  • Windows standard format that works well with Office
    2000

EPSF – Encapsulated PostScript Format

The Encapsulated PostScript Format is a proprietary, printer
description language that can describe both vector and bitmap information.

Advantages

  • Accurate representation on any PostScript
    printer
  • Industry standard format

Disadvantages

  • The on-screen representation may not match the printed
    representation; the on-screen representation may be low-resolution, a different
    image, or only a placeholder image.
  • EPS files are designed to be printed, not necessarily
    looked at. They are not the most suitable format to display information on the
    screen.

EMF – Enhanced Metafile

The Enhanced Metafile format is a 32-bit format that can contain
both vector and bitmap information. It is an improvement over the Windows
Metafile Format and contains extended features such as:

  • Built-in scaling information.
  • Built-in descriptions that are saved with the
    file.
  • Improvements in color palettes and device
    independence.

The EMF format is an extensible format, which means that a
programmer can modify the original specification to add functionality or meet
specific needs. This can lead to incompatibilities between different types of
EMF pictures.

Advantages

  • Extensible file format
  • Improved features compared to WMF

Disadvantages

  • Extensibility results in many different types of EMF
    pictures. Not all EMF files are compatible with all programs that support the
    EMF standard.

PICT – Macintosh Picture

The PICT file is a 32-bit metafile format for the Macintosh. PICT
files use Run Length Encoded (RLE) internal compression, which works reasonably
well. PICT files support JPEG compression if QuickTime is installed (Macintosh only).

Advantages

  • Best file format for on-screen display on the
    Macintosh
  • Best printing format from the Macintosh to a non-PostScript
    printer

Disadvantages

  • Fonts may be represented incorrectly when moved
    cross-platform
  • QuickTime must be installed to view some PICT files
    correctly

Resolution and Color Depth

This section discusses the appropriate color depth and resolution
for raster pictures. If you save pictures with the proper resolution and color
settings, you create smaller files. Smaller files mean smaller, faster
documents and presentations. It is in your best interest to make a picture as
small as possible, given your picture usage requirements.

On Screen Display

Collapse this tableExpand this table

Number of colors Internet use Non-Internet
use
1 (black and white) GIF at 72 pixels per inch
(ppi)
GIF at 72 pixels per inch (ppi)
16 GIF at 72 ppi GIF at 72 ppi
256 (simple picture)* GIF at 72 ppi GIF at 72
ppi
256 (complex picture)* JPG at 72 ppi JPG at
72 ppi
More than 256 JPG or PNG at 72 ppi JPG, PNG,
or TIF at 72 ppi

Note Microsoft recommends a resolution of 72 pixels per inch, because
most monitors have between 60 and 80 pixels per inch. Saving at a higher
resolution does not result in a higher quality display, because your monitor
can’t display more pixels than physically exist in the monitor. You should
calculate the points per inch according to finished size, not starting size.
For example, if you are scanning an 8.5-by-2-inch letterhead for use on a Web
page with a finished width of 2 inches, you would scan at 72 ppi for 2 inches,
for a total of 144 pixels. The resulting file looks great when sized to 2
inches and displayed on a monitor.

*Note At 256 colors, JPG files offer a higher level of compression than
GIF files do. However, JPG compression does not compress some simple files as
well as GIF compression does.

  • If your picture is grayscale, has large areas of one solid
    color, or has areas of high contrast (sharp differences between light and dark
    areas), choose the GIF format.
  • If your picture is in color and contains several different
    colors (hues) that are similar in lightness or darkness (value), choose the JPG
    format, because it offers better compression. JPG compression works according
    to hue and works well with different hues of a similar value. JPG compression
    does not work as well with similar hues at different values.

Printed Output

How to create good printed output is a complex subject, because
of the vast number of printers available and the capabilities of each to
produce color and grayscale output. The primary factor in creating quality
output is the number of lines per inch (LPI) that your printer is capable
of.

To print in color or grayscale, a printer must print in
halftones. Halftones are arrays of dots that are arranged in a grid and
represent each image pixel as a shade of gray. For a dark gray, most of the
dots in the grid are filled in, whereas for a light gray, only a few dots are
filled in on the grid. The size of this grid is determined by the LPI setting
for that printer. The higher the LPI, the smaller the grid, and the fewer
shades of gray the printer can render.

To print in color, the printer
must print overlapping lines of colored dots, each at a different angle from
the other, and slightly offset so that they do not completely cover each other.
This measurement is known as the Screen Frequency and is represented in degrees
of rotation of the lines of dots that make up that color.

The
following table helps you select the optimum scanning resolution in dots per
inch (dpi).

Collapse this tableExpand this table

Printer type Output dpi Output
LPI
Scanning ppi
Laser printer 300 55-65 120
Laser printer 600 65-85 150
Ink-Jet printer 300 50-60 110
Dye-Sub printer 300 55-70 125
Imagesetter 1250+ 120-150 300

A good rule is to multiply the LPI for your printer
by two, to calculate your target scanning resolution. To find out your
printer’s LPI, check your printer documentation.

Note You need to experiment when you apply this general rule. Some
printers support very high resolutions. If you save your picture at more than
300 ppi, larger pictures may take up large amounts of disk space and may slow
down other operations on your computer. Multiple large pictures in a document
could cause a program or Windows to stop responding. For more information about
how to determine the size of bitmap pictures, click the article number below to
view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

132271

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/132271/
)

Importing bitmaps: Determining size and memory requirements

The only exception to this rule is with pure black
and white, or “line art” images. These images use 1 bit to store color
information. With these images you should scan at a 1-to-1 ratio. If you have a
600 dpi printer, you should scan at 600 ppi in Line Art mode.

If you
want your picture to be in grayscale or to have fewer than 256 colors, then use
either the TIFF or GIF format. The TIFF format is the printing industry
standard for graphics, because it does not use a lossy compression scheme,
which other formats such as JPEG do. It also supports multiple levels of
transparency, which few other formats do.

If the picture has more
than 256 colors, save it in the TIFF or PNG format. Microsoft recommends the
PNG format if you need transparency; otherwise use the TIFF format.

You should still save your picture at printer resolution for the finished
picture size. For example, assume that you have an 8.5-by-2-inch letterhead,
and you want to print it at a size of 2 inches. If your printer supports 600
dpi and an LPI of 85, set the picture resolution to 150 ppi at 2 inches, for a
size of 300 x 71 pixels.

Note If you are saving a picture for use in Microsoft Publisher 2000,
and you want to separate areas of the picture into different spot colors, click
the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

264870

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/264870/
)

How to assign and separate spot colors in EPS graphics in Publisher 2000

Glossary

  • Alpha Channel – An alpha channel describes an area of transparency in a
    picture, which allows a background to show through. An alpha channel allows
    over 64,000 levels of transparency, which makes semi-transparent and blended
    effects possible.
  • Color Depth – The number of colors in your picture. Color depth is
    categorized by bit depth. If you use a deeper color depth, there are more
    colors in the picture, but it also increases your file size.

    • 1 bit – Black and white only
    • 8 bit – 256 shades of grayscale, or 256
      colors
    • 16 bit – High Color, 65,536 colors
    • 24 bit – True Color, 16,777,216 colors
    • 32 bit – True Color, 4,294,967,296 colors
  • Compression – Compression is a mathematical scheme that makes a picture file
    smaller by removing redundant information. There are two types of compression:
    lossless and lossy.
  • Compression, Lossless – Lossless compression is a compression scheme that puts a
    priority on maintaining the integrity of the original picture. When the picture
    is uncompressed, it maintains the same resolution and picture quality of the
    original, uncompressed picture.
  • Compression, Lossy – Lossy compression is a compression scheme that puts a priority
    on producing a small picture file, even at the sake of picture quality. Lossy
    compression can produce smaller picture files than lossless compression;
    however, when you uncompress the picture, some of the original picture data is
    lost and cannot be recovered.
  • File Size – File size is the ultimate limiting factor when dealing with
    picture files. It is the most common cause of problems when working with
    pictures in Microsoft Office. File size is determined by the following factors:
    picture size, resolution, file format, compression, and color depth.
  • Gamma Correction – A method of correcting the lightness or darkness of pictures,
    so that they appear with the same brightness on any monitor.
  • Hue – Hue describes the relative amounts of red, green, or blue in a
    color. For example, both pink and crimson have a red hue.
  • Interlaced – Interlacing is a method to send picture data over the Internet.
    When a picture is interlaced, after one sixty-fourth of it has been downloaded,
    you can see a general impression of what the picture looks like. As more of the
    image is downloaded, resolution improves until the entire picture is
    displayed.
  • Metafile Picture – A metafile picture usually contains vector picture information
    but can contain any kind of picture information, such as a raster picture. In
    essence, a metafile is a container that can contain any kind of picture
    data.
  • Palette – A palette is a list of the colors available to a particular
    picture. Different picture file formats have a different maximum number of
    colors. If your picture contains more colors than are available in any given
    format, the extra colors are replaced with colors in the color palette. The
    colors in the resulting image may look distorted. This is known as a “paletted
    effect.”
  • Pixel – A pixel is a fundamental unit of measurement in a raster-based
    picture or on a monitor. Both raster pictures and monitors are defined by rows
    of dots that can be individually assigned a color. These dots are called
    pixels.
  • Raster Picture – A raster picture is a picture that is displayed by defining
    rows of colored dots placed next to each other. Each dot is assigned an
    individual color.
  • Resolution – Resolution is the amount of picture data in a specific area of
    a picture. It is usually defined in pixels per inch. The higher the resolution,
    the more precision and clarity are in the picture. However, increasing the
    resolution also increases the file size of a picture.
  • Transparency – Transparency is a method that allows areas of a picture to
    appear transparent, thus revealing the background. There are several methods of
    transparency, including alpha channel transparency.
  • Value – This property describes the lightness or darkness of a color.
    For example, pink and baby blue have a similar value, although they have different hues.
  • Vector Picture – A vector picture is made up of areas defined by coordinates and
    mathematical formulas. This file format is more versatile than a raster picture
    format because vector pictures can be scaled to any size, and in some cases,
    ungrouped into smaller components.

Visit link:
Guidelines for selecting the appropriate picture format

Overview of Exchange Server database architecture and Database Engine

This article provides a general overview of the database
architecture and database engine for Microsoft Exchange Server. The discussion
includes information about the database components, maintenance of database
consistency, possible types of database failures, and database utilities.
Exchange Server uses fault-tolerant, transaction-based
databases to store messages and directory information before it is applied to
the database. For Exchange Server 5.5 Standard Edition, each database can grow
to a maximum of 16 gigabytes (GB). For Exchange Server 5.5 Enterprise Edition,
size is limited only by hardware.

If a power outage or other abnormal
system failure occurs, Exchange Server uses transaction log files to
reconstruct data that is already accepted by the server but not yet written to
the database.

Database Components

The design of Exchange Server is based on standard database
technology. The system relies on an embedded database engine that lays out the
structure of the disk for Exchange Server and manages memory. The database
engine technology is also used behind the scenes by other Windows applications,
for example, Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) and Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Information Store

The information store, which is the key component for database
management in Exchange Server, is actually two separate databases. The private
information store database, Priv.edb, manages data in user mailboxes. The
public information store, Pub.edb, manages data in public folders.

The information store works with the Messaging Application Programming
Interface (MAPI) and the database engine to ensure that all user actions are
recorded on the server’s hard disk. For example, when a user saves a message in
Microsoft Outlook, MAPI first calls the information store, which then calls the
database engine, which then writes the changes to disk.

JET Database Engine

Exchange Server databases are based on the JET format, which uses
log files to track and maintain information. Microsoft JET is an advanced
32-bit multithreaded database engine that combines speed and performance with
other advanced features to enhance transaction-based processing
capabilities.

The database engine caches the disk in memory by
swapping 4-kilobyte (KB) pages of data in and out of memory. It updates the
pages in memory and writes new or updated pages back to the disk. This makes
the system more efficient because when requests come, the database engine
buffers data in memory instead of constantly going to the disk.

In
versions earlier than Exchange Server 5.5, the buffer cache is a fixed size. If
more memory is needed, the administrator must manually change the buffer size.

In Exchange Server 5.5, dynamic buffer allocation allows the buffer
cache to grow or shrink, depending on how much memory is available and on what
resources are in use by other services that are running on the Microsoft
Windows NT Server computer. If other services are not using memory, the
Exchange Server database engine takes up as much memory as it needs. If other
services need memory, the database engine gives up some memory by transferring
pages to the hard disk and shrinking the size of the buffer.

When a
user makes a request, the database engine loads the request into memory and
marks the pages as “dirty” (a “dirty” page is a page that has been written with
data and is still being held in memory). These dirty pages are later written to
the information store databases on the disk.

Maintaining Database Consistency

Although caching in memory is the most efficient way to process
data, one effect is that information on the disk is never completely
up-to-date. Dirty pages in memory cause the databases to be flagged as
inconsistent even though Exchange Server is running normally. Databases are
truly in a consistent state only when all the dirty pages are successfully
transferred to disk during a shutdown in which no errors occur.

What
if you lose the contents of memory? For example, what if the server crashes
before the data is written to disk and you are left with an inconsistent
database? Exchange uses transaction log files to recover from this situation.

Transaction Log Files

Transaction log files keep a secure copy of volatile data that is
in memory. If the system crashes, assuming the database is undamaged, the log
files enable you to recover data up to the last committed transaction before
the crash. (Note that it is recommended that you store the log files on a
dedicated hard disk, so that the logs are not affected by possible disk
failures that can corrupt the database.)

Exchange is a
“transaction-based” messaging system, and the information store is a
transactional database. A transaction is a set of changes to a database, such
as inserts, deletes, and updates, in which the system follows four “ACID”
invariants:

  • Atomic: Either all the operations occur or none of them
    occur.
  • Consistent: The database is transformed from one correct
    state to another.
  • Isolated: Changes are not visible until they are committed.
  • Durable: Committed transactions are preserved in the
    database even if the system crashes.

Following these invariants means that the database engine
commits a transaction only when it can guarantee that the data is durable or
persistent, protected from crashes or other failures. The database engine
commits data only when that data has been transferred from memory to the
transaction log file on the hard disk.

For example, to move a
message from the Inbox folder to the Important folder, Exchange Server performs
three operations:

  1. Deletes the message from the Inbox folder
  2. Inserts the message into the Important folder
  3. Updates the information about each folder to reflect the
    number of items and unread items

These operations are done in one transaction. The order of the
operations does not matter. Exchange Server can safely delete the message from
the Inbox folder because the deletion is committed only when the message is
safely inserted into the Important folder. Even if the system crashes, Exchange
Server never loses a message while moving it and never ends up with two copies
of the message.

Logically, you might think of the data as moving
from memory to the log file and then to the database on disk, but what actually
happens is that data moves from memory to the database on disk. The log files
are optimized for high-speed writes, so during normal operations, the database
engine never actually reads the log files. It reads from the log files only if
the information store service stops abnormally or crashes and the database
engine needs to recover by replaying the log files.

The Checkpoint File

The database engine maintains a checkpoint file called
Edb.chk for every log file sequence in order to keep track of the data that has
not yet been written to the database file on disk. The checkpoint file is a
pointer in the log sequence that indicates where in the log file the
information store needs to start the recovery in case of a failure. The
checkpoint file is essential for efficient recovery. Without it, the
information store would start from the beginning of the oldest log file on the
disk and check every page in every log file to determine whether it had already
been written to the database–a time-consuming process, especially if all you
want to do is make the database consistent.

The checkpoint file is
located on the system disk. If you have to recover your system disk, this file
is probably missing or in only an invalid version. But in most cases the
checkpoint file takes care of itself.

Normal Logging

The following steps illustrate the process of “normal
logging” where data is written to transaction log files:

  1. The user sends a message.
  2. MAPI calls the information store to tell it that the user
    is sending the message.
  3. The information store starts a transaction in the database
    engine and makes the corresponding changes to the data.
  4. The database engine records the transaction in memory by
    dirtying a new page in memory.
  5. Simultaneously, the database engine secures the transaction
    in the transaction log file and creates a log record. When the database engine
    reaches the end of a transaction log file, it rolls over and creates a new log
    file in sequence.
  6. The database engine writes the dirty page to the database
    file on the hard disk.
  7. The checkpoint file is updated.

Circular Logging

Exchange Server supports a feature called circular
logging, which was implemented at a time when administrators were more
concerned about server disk space than about data recovery.

Circular
logging works in much the same way as normal logging except that the checkpoint
file is essential for keeping track of information that is transferred to disk.
During circular logging, as the checkpoint file advances to the next log file,
old files are reused. When this happens, you cannot use the log files on disk
in conjunction with your backup media to restore to the most recent committed
transaction.

By default, circular logging is turned on in Exchange
Server 5.5 to maintain a fixed size for log files and prevent buildup. When a
log file reaches its 5-MB limit, the database engine deletes it and creates a
new log file in the sequence. As a result, Exchange Server keeps only enough
data on the hard disk to make the database consistent if a crash occurs.

It is recommended that you turn off circular logging on your
Exchange Server computer. Circular logging may reduces the need for disk space,
but it also eliminates your ability to recover up to the last committed
transaction before a failure. You cannot replay log files and can only recover
data up to the last full backup. Even if only one log file is overwritten,
there is no way to recover the other 99 percent of the log data.

In
effect, circular logging negates the advantages of a transaction-based system.
Leaving circular logging turned on makes sense only if you do not need your
data or if you have other means of data recovery. If you are concerned about
log files’ consuming your disk resources, it is better to clean them up by
performing regular online backups. Backup automatically removes transaction log
files when they are no longer needed.

Data Protection

It seems logical to think that database files are the most
important aspect of data recovery. But in Exchange Server, transaction log
files are more important because they contain information that is not in the
database files. (This is why you should locate them on a stable server and
place them on dedicated, high-performance disks, even if that means putting the
database files on slower disks.)

Transaction log files keep a secure
copy on disk of volatile data that is in memory so that the system can recover
in the event of a failure. If the system crashes but the database is undamaged,
as long as you have the log files, you can recover data up to the last
committed transaction before the failure.

Transaction log files also
make writing data more efficient because it is faster to update pages
sequentially in a log file than to insert pages into the database. When a
change occurs in the database, the database engine updates the data in memory.
It synchronously writes a record of the transaction to the log file, telling it
how to redo the transaction if the system fails. Then the database engine
writes the data to the database on disk. To minimize disk input/output, the
database engine transfers pages to disk in batches.

Each log file in
a sequence can contain up to 5 MB of data. When a log file is full, it is
renamed as a previous log file, and a new one is created with the Edb.log file
name. Exchange Server associates each log file with a hexadecimal generation
number. Because log files can have the same name, the database engine stamps
the header in each file in the sequence with a unique signature so it can
distinguish between different generations of log files.

Database Corruption

Exchange may experience a failure, such as a hardware failure,
that requires the system to attempt to get back to a consistent state. Because
there are different types of database corruption with differing symptoms,
different tools and techniques are required to diagnose and fix problems.

There are two types of corruption:

  • Physical corruption
    At the lowest level, data can
    become physically corrupted on the disk. This is usually a hardware-related
    problem that always requires you to restore from backup.
  • Logical corruption
    Typical logical corruption occurs
    at the database level. For example, database engine failure can cause index
    entries to point to missing values. Logical corruption can also occur at the
    application level, in mailboxes, messages, folders, and attachments. For
    example, application-level corruption might cause incorrect reference counts,
    incorrect access control levels, a message header without a message body, and
    so on.

Physical Corruption

Physical corruption is serious because it can destroy data, and
the only thing you can do is restore Exchange from backup. It is important that
you detect physical corruption early and resolve the issues quickly.

Detecting Physical Corruption

Physical corruption in the information store generates
the following errors in the application log of Event Viewer:

  • -1018 (JET_errReadVerifyFailure) The data read from disk is
    not the same as the data that was written to disk.
  • -1022 (JET_errDiskIO) The hardware, device driver, or
    operating system is returning errors.
  • -510 JET_errLogWriteFail The log files are out of disk
    space or there is a hardware failure with the log file disk.

Although Exchange typically displays a -1018 or -1022 error
message when there is physical corruption, you can also detect physical
corruption by performing online backups, which are Microsoft’s recommended
method for backing up data. Online backup also is the best way to detect
corruption in a database file because it is the only process that
systematically checks every single page in the database.

When you
run an online backup, the Windows NT Backup software reads each 4-KB page in
the database file, passes it to the database engine, and then writes it to
tape. The database engine verifies that the checksum on each page is correct.
If the checksum on the page does not match the checksum that the database
engine calculates, there is physical database corruption on the hard disk and
NT Backup logs an -1018 error.

Preventing Physical Corruption

The best way to prevent physical corruption is to
outfit the server with quality hardware components and configure the system
correctly. Make sure that you are not running file-level utilities, such as
antivirus software, against database and log files on the computer that runs
Exchange Server.

If you have reliable hardware, you may never see
indications of physical corruption. If you do consistently run into -1018
errors, you probably have a hardware problem, possibly a bad disk or disk
controller.

A word about write-back caching: Some write-back caching
array controllers incorrectly return successful commits on transactions before
the data has actually been secured to disk. The safest course is to turn off
write-back caching unless the process has battery backup. If you do use
write-back caching, avoid having a corrupted database by making sure that data
is fully protected and that you have procedures to ensure that cached data is
replayed to the right disks after a crash.

Recovering from Physical Corruption

The only way to recover from physical database
corruption is to restore from the last good backup (if a backup ran without
errors, it is good) and roll the log files forward to bring the system to a
consistent and undamaged state. Repeated failure probably indicates a problem
with the disk where the database is located.

There is really no safe
way to repair physical corruption to the database. You can run the Eseutil.exe
utility in repair mode to get the database functioning again, but this is not
recommended because Eseutil simply deletes bad pages.

NOTE: If it is at all possible, avoid using Eseutil in repair mode
(Eseutil /p). Eseutil, which comes with Exchange Server, is a last resort for
repairing database damage when all else fails. In repair mode, it gets a broken
database running again by simply deleting damaged pages. Eseutil should never
be used to recover data. If you do run the Eseutil /p command, you must also run an offline defragmentation (Eseutil /d), and you must then run the Isinteg -test alltests -fix command to restore the database to a consistent state.

Logical Corruption

Logical corruption is much more difficult to diagnose and fix
than physical corruption because logical corruption is unpredictable and is
typically caused by software bugs. Usually it requires a problem to alert you
to logical corruption. (Logical corruption is extremely rare in Exchange Server
5.5.)

Preventing Logical Corruption

Because logical corruption is so unpredictable, there
is no foolproof way to prevent it. However, there are ways to reduce the
risk:

  • Install the latest service pack for Microsoft Exchange
    Server version 5.5 as soon as possible. Service packs fix a number of known
    problems in Exchange Server 5.5.

    For
    additional information about service packs and how to obtain them, click the
    article numbers below to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

    241740

    (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/241740/EN-US/
    )

    List of Bugs Fixed in Exchange Server 5.5 Service Pack 3

    254682

    (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/254682/EN-US/
    )

    XADM: Exchange Server 5.5 Post-SP3 Database Engine Fixes

    191014

    (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/191014/EN-US/
    )

    How to Obtain the Latest Exchange Server 5.5 Service Pack

  • Make sure that your Exchange Server computer is secure and
    that your configuration is not changed.

If you discover a problem and it persists after you follow
through on these precautions, you may have found a new bug. If this is the
case, notify Microsoft as soon as possible.
Repairing Logical Corruption

Logical corruption can occur in the information store
or in the database engine. Because logical corruption can cause serious damage
to data, do not ignore reports of errors.

You can use the Isinteg
utility to check into problems in the information store or the Eseutil utility
to check into problems in the database engine. Note that you should use these
utilities only as a last resort after you have tried to restore the system from
backup.

The Isinteg Utility

The Information Store Integrity Checker (Isinteg) finds
and eliminates errors from the public and private information store databases.
These errors may prevent the information store from starting or prevent users
from logging on and receiving, opening, or deleting e-mail.

Isinteg
is not intended for use as a part of normal information store maintenance; it
is provided to assist in disaster recovery situations. For example, you can run
Isinteg to correct information store counters in memory when they get out of
sync after a system crash.

Because the Isinteg utility works at the
logical schema level, it can recover data that Eseutil utility cannot recover.
This is because data that is valid for the Eseutil utility at the physical
schema level can be semantically invalid at the logical schema level. Isinteg
records information in the application log in Event Viewer so that you can
track the progress of the recovery.

The Isinteg utility performs two
main tasks:

  • It patches the information store after a restore from an
    offline backup.
  • It tests and optionally fixes errors in the information
    store.

For additional
information about troubleshooting the information store and Isinteg utility,
click the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge
Base:

182081

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/182081/EN-US/
)

XADM: Description of ISINTEG Utility

or see the Isinteg.rtf document on the
Exchange Server 5.5 compact disc, in the SupportUtils directory.

The Eseutil Utility

The Eseutil utility examines the structure of the
database tables and records and defragments, repairs, and checks the integrity
of the information store and directory. Because running Eseutil in repair mode
simply deletes damaged pages, use this utility only after you have tried to
restore from backup.

For additional information about the
Eseutil utility, click the article number below to view the article in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:

192185

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/192185/EN-US/
)

XADM: How to Defragment with the ESEUTIL Utility (Eseutil.exe)

or see the Eseutil.rtf document on the Exchange 5.5
compact disc in the SupportUtils directory.

Data Backup

Because Exchange Server is transaction-based, avoid performing a
file-level or offline backup of the database files on disk. The best way to
ensure that you are preserving all data in the system, including transactions
that have not yet been flushed to disk, is to perform regular online backups.

Online Backup

Online backup enables you to back up Exchange Server databases to
your backup medium without shutting down the server. When Exchange Server is
performing an online backup, all services, including the information store,
continue to run normally. Pages continue to be updated in memory and
transferred to the database files on disk, transactions are recorded in the log
files, and the checkpoint file continues to move along.

Exchange
uses a .pat (patch) file that keeps track of updated pages while the backup
software is running, to make sure that pages that are modified during backup
are also backed up. There are two .pat files, Priv.pat for the private
information store and Pub.pat for the public information store.

When
you perform an online backup, regularly check the application log in Event
Viewer to make sure that backups are completing successfully.

Process of Online Backup

A backup program, for example Windows NT Backup
(Ntbackup.exe), does the following during a full backup or a copy backup:

  1. Makes a copy of the database and backs it up to the tape.
  2. Adds a subset of pages to the .pat file, the pages that
    change after being copied to tape.
  3. Renames the current Edb.log file to Edbx.log, where x is the log file generation number in hexadecimal format, and
    creates a new log generation.
  4. In a full backup, backs up the .pat file and all log files
    after the checkpoint (except the new Edb.log) onto the tape. In a copy backup,
    backs up all log files before and after the checkpoint.
  5. In a full backup, deletes transaction log files that are
    older than the checkpoint. In a copy backup, does not delete any transaction
    log files.

A backup program does the following during an incremental
backup or a differential backup:

  1. In an incremental backup, makes a copy of the log files and
    backs them up to the tape. In a differential backup, copies the database to
    tape.
  2. Adds a subset of pages to the .pat file, the pages that
    change after being copied to tape.
  3. Renames the current Edb.log file to Edbx.log and creates a new log generation.
  4. Backs up the .pat file and all log files before and after
    the checkpoint, including the new Edb.log, to tape.
  5. In an incremental backup, deletes transaction log files
    older than the checkpoint. In a differential backup, does not delete any log
    files.

Offline Backup

Try to avoid doing offline backups. In an online backup, the
backup program manages files for you, but offline backup is a manual,
labor-intensive process that is prone to human error. Additionally, in an
offline backup, you cannot validate the checksum on each page of the database.
Online backups are the single most valuable tool for detecting corruption and
performing data recovery.

For additional information about backups, click the article
numbers below to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

191357

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/191357/EN-US/
)

XADM: Restoring a Single Database from Full Online Backups

179308

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/179308/EN-US/
)

XADM: How To Verify Exchange Online Backups

View the original here:
Overview of Exchange Server database architecture and Database Engine

XADM: How to Install the Key Management Server

This article describes how to install Key Management server (KM server) on an Exchange 2000 Server computer.

Software Requirements

  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Certificate Server
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server
  • Microsoft Exchange Messaging and Collaboration Services
  • Microsoft Exchange Key Management Services

How to Install and Configure the Certificate Server

  1. On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
  2. Double-click Add Remove Programs.
  3. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.
  4. In the Windows Component Wizard box, click to select the Certificate Services check box, and then click Next.
  5. If you are running Terminal Server, click either Remote Administration Mode or Application Server Mode to choose the mode in which you want to install Certificate Server, and then click Next.
  6. If this is the first installation of Certificate Server and no other certifying authority needs to act as the root, select Enterprise Root CA, and then click Next.NOTE: If a Certificate Server or another legacy Exchange Server computer exists in the organization, please see the online documentation for Exchange Server 5.5 KM server and Windows NT 4.0 Certificate Server interoperability and configuration.
  7. In the CA Name box, type a certification authority (CA) name. This name cannot be changed or modified if this Certificate Server is the root. Click Next.
  8. Choose the location in which you want the certificate database and log file to be created and reside. Stop the Microsoft Internet Information Service (IIS), and then click Next.
  9. After installation finishes, click Finish.
  10. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Certification Authority.
  11. Under Certification Authority (Local), click to expand KMS.
  12. Right-click Policy Settings, point to New, and then click Certificate to Issue.
  13. In the Select Certificate Template dialog box use the Control key to click and select the Enrollment Agent (Computer), the Exchange User, and the Exchange Signature Only items, and then click OK.

How to Install the Key Management Server

  1. On the Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
  2. Double-click Add Remove Programs.
  3. Click Change or Remove Programs, and then click Microsoft Exchange 2000.
  4. When the Exchange 2000 Server Installation Wizard is displayed, click Next.
  5. If previous components have been installed, click Change under Action. If no components have been installed, click Install.
  6. Under Action, click to select the Install check box for Microsoft Exchange Messaging and Collaboration Services and Microsoft Exchange Key Management Services. Click Next.
  7. Choose to display the password once, and then either write the password down or have the password written to two floppy disks. Click Next.

This completes installation of your Key Management server.

Article ID: 267273 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 2.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition

Visit site:
XADM: How to Install the Key Management Server

Exchange 2000 requires /3GB switch with more than 1 gigabyte of physical RAM

You must change the overall memory allocation on a computer that runs Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server when all the following conditions are true:

  • The computer contains 1 gigabyte (GB) or more of physical random access memory (RAM).
  • The computer is home to mailboxes or to public folders.

You do not have to make changes if the computer does not have any mailboxes or public folders on it (such as a mail gateway).

After you have installed Windows 2000 Advanced
Server, you must modify the Boot.ini file and add the /3GB parameter to the startup line. For example:

Boot Loader
Timeout=30
Default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)WINNT
Operating Systems
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server" /fastdetect /3GB
				

Note Some of the lines above have been wrapped for readability.

Note Do not add the /3GB switch if you are running Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Small Business Server 2000, or Microsoft BackOffice Server 2000. If the /3GB switch has been added to the Boot.ini file on these operating systems, it must be removed because it can contribute to virtual memory fragmentation on these systems. This switch is designed for use only with Windows 2000 Advanced Server and later.

By default, Windows 2000 Advanced Server reserves 2 GB of
virtual address space for the kernel, and allows user mode processes (such as
the Exchange 2000 information store process, Store.exe) to use 2 GB of virtual
address space. Virtual address space for a specific process is allocated at
Startup and increases as more memory is used during run-time. It is normal for
the actual memory usage (working set) of a process to be much less than the
address space the process was allocated. On an Exchange 2000 server that has more
than 1 gigabyte of memory and that is home to mailboxes or public folders, you must modify Windows 2000 Advanced Server so
that 3 gigabytes are available for user mode applications.

For additional information
about this /3GB setting, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

171793

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/171793/
)

Information on application use of 4GT RAM Tuning

189293

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/189293/
)

Enabling 4GT RAM Tuning when you use Windows NT Server Enterprise Edition

Note It is very important that the Store.exe process does not run out
of virtual address space. When this happens, memory allocations fail (even if
there is plenty of physical RAM left) and you must restart the Microsoft
Exchange Information Store service.

For example, a server with 2 GB
of physical RAM without the /3GB switch in the Boot.ini file will run out of memory when the
Store.exe virtual address space reaches 2 GB. Windows Task Manager shows that
only about 1.5 GB is actually being used but the server will be out of memory
nonetheless.

You may also monitor the virtual address consumption
with Performance Monitoring. Add the Virtual Bytes counter for the Store.exe process to ensure an accurate reading
of the virtual space. The Store.exe process is the only Exchange 2000 process
that you need to monitor; other Exchange 2000 processes will not grow large
enough to cause any problems.

Article ID: 266096 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 6.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition

More:
Exchange 2000 requires /3GB switch with more than 1 gigabyte of physical RAM

XIMS: SMTP Reply Codes (RFC 821)

The three digits of the reply each have a special significance. The
first digit denotes whether the response is good, bad or incomplete.
An unsophisticated sender-SMTP will be able to determine its next
action (proceed as planned, redo, retrench, etc.) by simply examining
this first digit. A sender-SMTP that wants to know approximately what
kind of error occurred (e.g., mail system error, command syntax error)
may examine the second digit, reserving the third digit for the finest
gradation of information.

There are five values for the first digit of the reply code:

1yz Positive Preliminary reply

The command has been accepted, but the requested action is being held
in abeyance, pending confirmation of the information in this reply.
The sender-SMTP should send another command specifying whether to
continue or abort the action.

(Note: SMTP does not have any commands that allow this type of reply,
and so does not have the continue or abort commands.)

2yz Positive Completion reply

The requested action has been successfully completed. A new request
may be initiated.

3yz Positive Intermediate reply

The command has been accepted, but the requested action is being held
in abeyance, pending receipt of further information. The sender-SMTP
should send another command specifying this information. This reply is
used in command sequence groups.

4yz Transient Negative Completion reply

The command was not accepted and the requested action did not occur.
However, the error condition is temporary and the action may be
requested again. The sender should return to the beginning of the
command sequence (if any). It is difficult to assign a meaning to
“transient” when two different sites (receiver- and sender- SMTPs)
must agree on the interpretation. Each reply in this category might
have a different time value, but the sender-SMTP is encouraged to try
again. A rule of thumb to determine if a reply fits into the 4yz or
the 5yz category (see below) is that replies are 4yz if they can be
repeated without any change in command form or in properties of the
sender or receiver. (E.g., the command is repeated identically and
the receiver does not put up a new implementation.)

5yz Permanent Negative Completion reply

The command was not accepted and the requested action did not occur.
The sender-SMTP is discouraged from repeating the exact request (in
the same sequence). Even some “permanent” error conditions can be
corrected, so the human user may want to direct the sender-SMTP to
reinitiate the command sequence by direct action at some point in the
future (e.g., after the spelling has been changed, or the user has
altered the account status).

The second digit encodes responses in specific categories:

x0z Syntax

These replies refer to syntax errors, syntactically correct commands
that don’t fit any functional category, and unimplemented or
superfluous commands.

x1z Information

These are replies to requests for information, such as status or help.

x2z Connections

These are replies referring to the transmission channel.

x3z

Unspecified as yet.

x4z

Unspecified as yet.

x5z Mail system

These replies indicate the status of the receiver mail system
vis-a-vis the requested transfer or other mail system action.

The third digit gives a finer gradation of meaning in each category
specified by the second digit. The list of replies illustrates this.
Each reply text is recommended rather than mandatory, and may even
change according to the command with which it is associated. On the
other hand, the reply codes must strictly follow the specifications
in this section. Receiver implementations should not invent new codes
for slightly different situations from the ones described here, but
rather adapt codes already defined.

For example, a command such as NOOP whose successful execution does
not offer the sender-SMTP any new information will return a 250 reply.
The response is 502 when the command requests an unimplemented
on-site-specific action. A refinement of that is the 504 reply for a
command that is implemented, but that requests an unimplemented
parameter.

The reply text may be longer than a single line; in these cases the
complete text must be marked so the sender-SMTP knows when it can
stop reading the reply. This requires a special format to indicate a
multiple line reply.

The format for multiline replies requires that every line, except the
last, begin with the reply code, followed immediately by a hyphen, “-”
(also known as minus), followed by text. The last line will begin with
the reply code, followed immediately by (SP), optionally some text,
and (CRLF).

For example:

123-First line
123-Second line
123-234 text beginning with numbers
123 The last line

In many cases the sender-SMTP then simply needs to search for the
reply code followed by (SP) at the beginning of a line, and ignore
all preceding lines. In a few cases, there is important data for
the sender in the reply “text”. The sender will know these cases
from the current context.

Also see RFC 1893 (Q256321) for Enhanced Status Codes for Delivery
Status Notification (DSN) messages.

Visit link:
XIMS: SMTP Reply Codes (RFC 821)

Unable to log on to Exchange Server from a Windows 2000 or Windows XP client

When you try to use Outlook to log on to an Exchange Server computer, you may receive one of the following error messages:

The name could not be resolved. The Microsoft Exchange address book was unable to logon to the Microsoft Exchange Server computer.

Your logon information is incorrect.

There is no loss of connectivity from the computer that is running Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Remote procedure call (RPC) connectivity works, you can open a shared list on the Exchange Server computer, you can log on to the Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 domain, and you can ping by name and by Internet Protocol (IP).

To resolve this problem, remove and re-add Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the Local Area Connection properties:

  1. Double-click the My Computer icon, double-click Control Panel, and then double-click Network and Dial-Up Connections.
  2. Click Local Area Connection, click Properties on the File menu, and then click to clear the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) check box.
  3. Install another protocol (NWlink or NetBEUI) to maintain a placeholder for each connection.
  4. Restart your computer, double-click the My Computer icon, double-click Control Panel, and then double-click Network and Dial-Up Connections.
  5. Click Local Area Connection, click Properties on the File menu, and then click to select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) check box to add TCP/IP.

For more information about this process, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

285034

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/285034/
)

How to remove and reinstall TCP/IP for Windows 2000

The article contains the following procedure to remove TCP/IP from your Windows 2000-based computer:

  1. Click to clear the TCP/IP check box from all dial-up connections and all LAN connections in the Network and Dial-up Connections tool.
  2. Install another protocol (NWlink or NetBEUI) to maintain a placeholder for each connection.
  3. Restart your computer.
  4. Reinstall TCP/IP, and then restart your computer.

If the computer is a domain controller, the procedure is different.

For more information about how to remove and reinstall TCP/IP on a Windows 2000 domain controller, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

299451

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/299451/
)

How to remove and reinstall TCP/IP on a Windows 2000 domain controller

For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

325930

(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/325930/
)

How to troubleshoot connectivity issues that are caused by RPC client protocol registry entries

Article ID: 255843 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 4.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 5.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Outlook 2002 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Outlook 2000 Standard Edition

See more here:
Unable to log on to Exchange Server from a Windows 2000 or Windows XP client

"Subtask ValidateConfiguration execution failed: Configure Mail Flow" error when you run the Hybrid Configuration Wizard

When you run the Hybrid Configuration Wizard to set up a hybrid deployment between your on-premises Exchange Server 2010 SP3 environment and Exchange Online, you receive the following error message:

‘Subtask ValidateConfiguration execution failed: Configure Mail Flow

This issue occurs if hybrid mail flow connectors already exist in the on-premises environment and in Exchange Online.
Important You will lose mail flow while you perform these steps. To minimize disruption, perform this procedure during scheduled downtime.

Remove the hybrid mail flow connectors from the on-premises environment and from Exchange Online. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Remove the Send and Receive connectors from the on-premises environment. To do this, open the Exchange Management Console, and then follow these steps:
    1. To remove the Send connector, expand Organization Configuration, click Hub Transport, click the Send Connectors tab, right-click Outbound to Office 365, and then click Remove.
    2. To remove the Receive connector, expand Server Configuration, click Hub Transport, click the Receive Connectors tab, select the server that has the Receive connector that you want to remove (usually the hybrid server), right-click Inbound from Office 365, and then click Remove.
  2. Open a command prompt, and then run the following command to sync all domain controllers:
  3. Remove the Send and Receive connectors from Exchange Online. To do this, follow these steps:
    1. Sign in to the Office 365 portal, click Admin, and then click Exchange to open the Exchange admin center.
    2. Click mail flow, and then click connectors.
    3. To remove the Send connector, under Outbound Connectors, click Hybrid Mail Flow Outbound Connector, and then click Delete (

      Collapse this imageExpand this image

      ).

    4. To remove the Receive connector, under Inbound Connectors, click Hybrid Mail Flow Inbound Connector, and then click Delete (

      Collapse this imageExpand this image

      ).

  4. Run the Hybrid Configuration Wizard again.
Still need help? Go to the Office 365 Community

(http://community.office365.com/)

website or the Exchange TechNet Forums

(http://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/exchange/en-us/home?category=exchange2010%2Cexchangeserver)

.

Article ID: 2977293 – Last Review: June 19, 2014 – Revision: 2.0


Applies to
  • Microsoft Exchange Online
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 3
o365e o365m o365022013 o365 o365a hybrid KB2977293

Read this article:
"Subtask ValidateConfiguration execution failed: Configure Mail Flow" error when you run the Hybrid Configuration Wizard

Page 41 of 704« First...102030...3940414243...506070...Last »

Recent Comments

    Archives

    Categories